Here are some examples of elements of the political environment and how they affect the business: The concern of people, governments and businesses for the protection of the environment is increasing. Therefore, in a society that is increasingly aware of the need to protect the environment in which we live, companies must work together for sustainable development in the fields of activity in which they operate and be aware that an environmental protection policy can be a mechanism for differentiating competition. The political orientation of the ruling party has a strong impact on the functioning of companies in©terms of taxes, public spending, etc. Among the advantages of creating a PEST, it is worth noting its adaptability. We can classify some factors into others (legislation within politics…). This allows us to adapt to the specificities of the field or sector of activity. The variables of the political environment that influence the existence and profitability of a company act from the different levels of governmental organization (international, state, federal or autonomous and local). These include the following: Finally, technological factors refer to the impact that new information and communication technologies can have on businesses. In this case, a distinction should be made between the technological factors of the general environment (which affect any type of business) and the technological factors of the competitive environment (this is a specific technology applied to a particular sector or industry). Technological factors in the general environment include public spending on R+D+i (research, development and innovation), patent and trademark development, government and industry attention to technological efforts, new discoveries and developments in processes, products, services and techniques, speed of technology transfer and obsolescence rates.
The political environment of a particular society may be different, and companies must be prepared to deal with the potential impact this can have on the development of their business. This applies in particular to companies operating internationally, as the emergence of world powers or international agreements between countries can limit their competitiveness in the market. This environment can be analyzed from two axes: political stability and expressions of power that result in laws, resolutions, decrees, ordinances, etc. For this reason, given the importance of the legislation in force in this environment, most authors call it the political-legal environment. A very clear example of the importance of studying the political environment of the company in order to design a strategic© plan± is that of companies located in free zones. Technique to perform the analysis of the general framework and identify opportunities and threats to the company by dividing environmental factors into the following categories: political-legal factors, economic factors, socio-cultural factors and technological factors. Here are some examples of rules that specifically affect the company: Institutional organization directly affects the ability of companies to influence their political environment. In highly decentralized societies, companies have better access to actors in the political environment. Economic factors include all macroeconomic variables that can impact businesses. Some examples of economic factors important for the enterprise may be: the economic cycle (phase of the cycle in which the enterprise is located: growth, crisis), economic growth (trends of the main economic measures, such as gross domestic product), the balance of payments situation and the level of exports and imports, exchange rates, changes in interest rates, money supply, inflation rates and price developments, unemployment and employment rates, disposable and per capita income, and the availability and cost of energy.
Technologies surround us and companies need to be aware of technological changes, as they can offer new business opportunities or undermine competitive advantage that is no longer sustainable (this is the case of KODAK before the advent of digital photography). In general, in societies governed by liberal parties, current legislation favours the free functioning of enterprises, while in societies governed by socialist parties there is a greater tendency to protect workers and consumers, and therefore the legislation is more restrictive. This element includes the specific legal provisions that govern the operation of companies. In general, a manager must identify the relevant legal aspects of the environment that can most strongly influence the normal development of the company`s business and develop strategies that allow him to take advantage of the benefits of the legislation. To study which factors of the general environment (macro-environment) have had or have a particular influence, as well as to know what changes are taking place and which of these changes will be more or less important in the future of the company and its competitors, a basic analysis tool called PEST by some or PESTA by others is used. This group includes a wide variety and heterogeneity of factors. Cultural factors include, but are not limited to, the level of education, the relationship between the education system and enterprise and society, and continuing education and retraining. Los factores sociales a analizar pueden ser la demografía (envejecimiento de la población, tasas de natalidad, distribución de la población, efecto de la inmigración, etc.), la distribución de la renta, la movilidad social, los cambios en el estilo de vida, la conciliación de la vida familiar y la vida laboral, las actitudes hacia el trabajo y el ocio o el consumismo. Tourism businesses are trapped in a changing environment characterized by technological advances, increasing global competition and the consequences of the global economic crisis. In these circumstances, tourism businesses are forced to develop marketing strategies and implement strategic plans. Well, understanding marketing and developing effective strategies means understanding the context in which the company operates, as this will generate market opportunities and threats that will determine its future. Among the forces that make up the business environment are, among others, the economy, society, politics, demography.
One of the most important demographic phenomena for tourism businesses over the past decade has been the increase in the disabled population combined with greater participation in the tourism sector itself. However, this participation could be even greater if the destinations and businesses that make it up were accessible to people with disabilities. The lack of attention that has been given to them until recently has led persons with disabilities and, above all, their right to leisure and the enjoyment of their free time to tourist destinations inaccessible to tourists with disabilities. This work focuses on the study of the political and legal environment in the tourism sector in general and in the hotel sector, in particular in terms of accessibility. Similarly, there are sectors where legislation requires the establishment of environmental management systems and the development of action plans to restore the original environmental conditions that may have been altered by the company`s own activity, as may be the case with companies in the cement sector. In other cases, environmentally friendly legislation can lead to great opportunities for the emergence of companies with business models based on such legislation, such as renewable energy companies.